[n] the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface"
[n] (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
[n] a rule describing the conversion of one syntactic structure into another related syntactic structure
[n] a qualitative change
[n] (mathematics) a function that changes the position or direction of the axes of a coordinate system