Fries (Jacob / Jakob Friedrich), German philosopher, b. Barby, 23 Aug. 1773. Brought up as a Moravian, he became a Deist. Fries is of the Neo-Kantian rationalistic school. Among his writings are a System of Metaphysics, 1824; a Manual of the Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Æsthetics, Heidelberg ’32; in which he resolves religion into poetry. He criticised Kant’s proofs of God and immortality, and wrote a History of Philosophy. Died Jena, 10 Aug. 1843.